CAL – The Revolutionary Bose-Einstein condensate that Reached the Outer Space

The Journal of Nature has recently published a new invention created by a team of physicists at Caltech concerning a quantum state of matter, commonly referred to as Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The success of this experiment was guaranteed by the fact that researchers have decided to place an experimental setup on the International Space Station. Later on, it was named the Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL), and it is considered to be “the coolest spot in the universe.”

Back in 1920, Albert Einstein and Satyendra Bose have managed to predict the possibility of atoms to spread out and come back together, which is even stronger than before. Therefore, the team of researchers has named their experiment as a homage to the two scientists.

This phenomenon can be easily explained by the change in temperatures in the solar system. First, the temperatures are of a normal degree, creating an environment in which atoms bounce off one another. When the temperature becomes lower than usual, their bouncing speed is reduced. This is the moment when the atoms start packing with each other and even succeed in coordinating themselves.

Seventy-five years had gone by, when physicists Carl Wieman and Eric Cornell managed to create the first BECs in JILA facility in Colorado, in an artificial environment. However, the temperature was not as cold as needed, and the physicist decided to cool them at 10 million rubidium gas atoms. Therefore, the atoms have started moving closer and closer, and they eventually became the same. A second step has been added, the evaporative cooling, which means that the hotter atoms jump out of the atoms colony.

The latest discovery in this field, CAL is currently produced daily. One of the officials has declared during an interview with Business Insider that the producing stage of CAL can even be done from the comfort of their own homes.

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