El Nino (Child of the Lord) occurs in the tropical, Pacific Ocean area, due to surface warming of ocean waters and their movement from the west of South America, to the east, generating droughts, storms, and floods, along the coast.
The name comes from the fact that its beginning takes place around the date of Christmas in the southern hemisphere and was given by the Peruvian fishermen, who were economically disadvantaged by this phenomenon because the fish banks were withdrawing near the coasts of South America.
This phenomenon generates climate anomalies all over the planet, especially in tropical areas. The return to normality is known as La Niña when the waters cool down, and there are periods of drought and wind.
El Nino has a significant impact on biodiversity in the Amazonian Rainforest and a global insect collapse.
Since 2015 when El Nino was less critical than the wildfires, it still delivered a significant drought.
Hotter and Drier El Nino’s Impact on Biodiversity in the Amazon
Along with human activities like deforestation and agriculture, led to beetle number fall with no less than half, and the effects lasted almost two years.
During wildfires, over 3 million hectares from the Amazonian forests were burnt, and it was the biggest disaster in the last 50 years. Droughts and wildfires are for decades, but the research teams didn’t have any exact data about the impact over the forest.
An important “player” for biodiversity is the dung beetle, which is the key to spreading nutrients and seeds over the entire ecosystem. There are over 14,000 dung beetles from almost 90 species across 30 forests in Brazil. An international team made this counter of scientists from the UK, Brazil, and New Zealand.
In 2010, the counting process had a result of over 8,000 beetles across the plots. After El Nino in 2016, were found around 3,700 beetles, and in 2017, no less than 2,600. Human deforestation and other activities made by humans will bring extinction to these creatures. Also, it will continue to destroy the forests, because fire doesn’t start by itself.