A new study published by the University of Chicago and University of North Carolina depicts how species of birds create long-term bonds to raise their offspring more effectively.
The males of species that create long-lasting pair-bonds, usually continue to make intricate displays of plumage, colors, and dances after they mate with the female. Scientists have wondered why the males choose to give all this attention to their mates, rather than increasing their chance of procreating by mating with as many females as possible.
The new research led by biologists at the University of Chicago and the University of North Carolina published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences explains how his type of sexual cooperation and bonding develops.
Forming a strong pair bong and emotional attachments between a male and female is definitely not only what humans do, UChicago biologist Trevor Price, a leading scholar of bird evolution, and senior author of the study, said.
Long-lasting Bonding and Private Displaying
A large number of experiments in birds have shown that a male that shows off more intensely creates a sweeter song or has a more impressive color suit simulates his mate to invest more in their offspring.
However, while the appearance of the gaudy display that simulates females may be beneficial to the male, as he has more brood, it is likely bad for the female to invest more because she has to work harder, which impacts her chances of fruitfully raising more offspring in the future.
Putting to use a mathematical population genetic model, Price, Maria Servedio of the University of North Carolina, and their colleagues explain how these actions could affect the species.
For instance, let’s say the females of a species typically lay three eggs, and their partner helps them raise the offspring. On the other hand, a male with increased blue coloration causes his mate to lay four eggs. The latter males have more brood than tedious males; therefore, blue males become progressively common over generations.
Even so, raising the extra offspring comes with a big disadvantage for females, so a female who lays only three eggs has an advantage over the one laying four. These females then become greatly common. Eventually, all males are blue, and all females lay three eggs. However, if the male does not create a display, females would only lay two eggs because her hormones are not awakened. This is not good for either one of them.
Simply put, males have to hang around and put on displays for both the male and the female to get the maximum advantage. The evolutionary course can be repeated numerous times with another color or type of display. In the end, the female can become so attached to numerous aspects of the male’s display that without it, she rarely ovulates.
“The models enable us to see the wide ranges of conditions that can cause displays to become stuck in the population, evolutionarily, and that can lead to this result,” Servedio said.
The research, named “Evolution of sexual cooperation from sexual conflict,” was supported by the National Science Foundation and the Norwegian Research Council.