The Quark-Gluon Plasma Could Be Explained With Gravitational Waves

There are some computer simulations of merging neutron stars that forecast new signature in the gravitational waves to show when this occurs. Neutron stars are one of the densest space objects in the Universe. If our host star, with its orbit of approximately 700,000 kilometers were a neutron star, its weight would be compressed into an almost flawless sphere with an orbit of only 12 kilometers. When two neutron stars crash, the material blend into a supermassive neutron star.

Then the matter in the core of the object turns dense and hot. According to some physical analyzes, such conditions could develop hadrons, such as protons and neutrons. These particles can dissolve into their components of gluons and quarks, which later produce a quark-gluon plasma. Recent research focused on such a phenomenon and brought some unexpected results.

How Could a Quark-Gluon Influence the Gravitational Waves

The study of the Frankfurt physicists might shed some light on the quark-gluon phenomenon. They simulated blending neutron stars and the result of the merger to find out the conditions under which a shift fro hadrons to a quark-gluon plasma would occur. Also, how such a thing would influence the corresponding gravitational wave.

The result was genuinely intriguing. In a particular, late phase of the life of the blended object, a state shift to the quark-gluon plasma happened. It left, as well, a characteristic and clear signature on the gravitational-wave signal.

“If this signature occurs in the gravitational waves that we will receive from future neutron-star mergers, we would have clear evidence for the creation of quark-gluon plasma in the present universe,” explained Professor Luciano Rezzolla from the Goethe University.

Back in 2017, it was found for the first time that blending neutron stars transmit gravitational wave signals that can be tracked on Earth. When these gravitational waves were first spotted in 2017, however, they were not recorded beyond the blending phase.

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